Module CLP.FD

Library for finite domain constraint solving.

An FD problem is specified as an expression of type FDConstr using the constraints and expressions offered in this library. FD variables are created by the operation domain. An FD problem is solved by calling solveFD with labeling options, the FD variables whose values should be included in the output, and a constraint. Hence, the typical program structure to solve an FD problem is as follows:

main :: [Int]
main =
  let fdvars  = take n (domain u o)
      fdmodel = {description of FD problem}
   in solveFD {options} fdvars fdmodel

where n are the number of variables and [u..o] is the range of their possible values.

Author: Michael Hanus

Version: February 2015

Summary of exported operations:

domain :: Int -> Int -> [FDExpr]   
Operations to construct basic constraints.
fd :: Int -> FDExpr   
Represent an integer value as an FD expression.
(+#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDExpr   
Addition of FD expressions.
(-#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDExpr   
Subtraction of FD expressions.
(*#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDExpr   
Multiplication of FD expressions.
(=#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   
Equality of FD expressions.
(/=#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   
Disequality of FD expressions.
(<#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   
"Less than" constraint on FD expressions.
(<=#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   
"Less than or equal" constraint on FD expressions.
(>#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   
"Greater than" constraint on FD expressions.
(>=#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   
"Greater than or equal" constraint on FD expressions.
true :: FDConstr   
The always satisfied FD constraint.
(/\) :: FDConstr -> FDConstr -> FDConstr   
Conjunction of FD constraints.
andC :: [FDConstr] -> FDConstr   
Conjunction of a list of FD constraints.
allC :: (a -> FDConstr) -> [a] -> FDConstr   
Maps a constraint abstraction to a list of FD constraints and joins them.
allDifferent :: [FDExpr] -> FDConstr   
"All different" constraint on FD variables.
sum :: [FDExpr] -> FDRel -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   
Relates the sum of FD variables with some integer of FD variable.
scalarProduct :: [FDExpr] -> [FDExpr] -> FDRel -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   
(scalarProduct cs vs relop v) is satisfied if (sum (cs*vs) relop v) is satisfied.
count :: FDExpr -> [FDExpr] -> FDRel -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   
(count v vs relop c) is satisfied if (n relop c), where n is the number of elements in the list of FD variables vs that are equal to v, is satisfied.
solveFD :: [Option] -> [FDExpr] -> FDConstr -> [Int]   
Computes (non-deterministically) a solution for the FD variables (second argument) w.r.t.
solveFDAll :: [Option] -> [FDExpr] -> FDConstr -> [[Int]]   
Computes all solutions for the FD variables (second argument) w.r.t.
solveFDOne :: [Option] -> [FDExpr] -> FDConstr -> [Int]   
Computes a single solution for the FD variables (second argument) w.r.t.

Exported datatypes:


FDRel

Possible relations between FD values.

Constructors:

  • Equ :: FDRel : Equal
  • Neq :: FDRel : Not equal
  • Lt :: FDRel : Less than
  • Leq :: FDRel : Less than or equal
  • Gt :: FDRel : Greater than
  • Geq :: FDRel : Greater than or equal

Option

This datatype defines options to control the instantiation of FD variables in the solver (solveFD).

Constructors:

  • LeftMost :: Option : The leftmost variable is selected for instantiation (default)
  • FirstFail :: Option : The leftmost variable with the smallest domain is selected (also known as first-fail principle)
  • FirstFailConstrained :: Option : The leftmost variable with the smallest domain and the most constraints on it is selected.
  • Min :: Option : The leftmost variable with the smalled lower bound is selected.
  • Max :: Option : The leftmost variable with the greatest upper bound is selected.
  • Step :: Option : Make a binary choice between x=#b and x/=#b for the selected variable x where b is the lower or upper bound of x (default).
  • Enum :: Option : Make a multiple choice for the selected variable for all the values in its domain.
  • Bisect :: Option : Make a binary choice between x&lt;=#m and x&gt;#m for the selected variable x where m is the midpoint of the domain x (also known as domain splitting).
  • Up :: Option : The domain is explored for instantiation in ascending order (default).
  • Down :: Option : The domain is explored for instantiation in descending order.
  • All :: Option : Enumerate all solutions by backtracking (default).
  • Minimize :: Int -> Option : Find a solution that minimizes the domain variable v (using a branch-and-bound algorithm).
  • Maximize :: Int -> Option : Find a solution that maximizes the domain variable v (using a branch-and-bound algorithm).
  • Assumptions :: Int -> Option : The variable x is unified with the number of choices made by the selected enumeration strategy when a solution is found.
  • RandomVariable :: Int -> Option : Select a random variable for instantiation where x is a seed value for the random numbers (only supported by SWI-Prolog).
  • RandomValue :: Int -> Option : Label variables with random integer values where x is a seed value for the random numbers (only supported by SWI-Prolog).

FDExpr

Constructors:


FDConstr

Constructors:


Exported operations:

domain :: Int -> Int -> [FDExpr]   

Operations to construct basic constraints. Returns infinite list of FDVars with a given domain.

Example call:
(domain min max)
Parameters:
  • min : minimum value for all variables in xs
  • max : maximum value for all variables in xs
Further infos:
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

fd :: Int -> FDExpr   

Represent an integer value as an FD expression.

Further infos:
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

(+#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDExpr   

Addition of FD expressions.

Further infos:
  • defined as left-associative infix operator with precedence 6
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

(-#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDExpr   

Subtraction of FD expressions.

Further infos:
  • defined as left-associative infix operator with precedence 6
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

(*#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDExpr   

Multiplication of FD expressions.

Further infos:
  • defined as left-associative infix operator with precedence 7
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

(=#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   

Equality of FD expressions.

Further infos:
  • defined as non-associative infix operator with precedence 4
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

(/=#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   

Disequality of FD expressions.

Further infos:
  • defined as non-associative infix operator with precedence 4
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

(<#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   

"Less than" constraint on FD expressions.

Further infos:
  • defined as non-associative infix operator with precedence 4
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

(<=#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   

"Less than or equal" constraint on FD expressions.

Further infos:
  • defined as non-associative infix operator with precedence 4
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

(>#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   

"Greater than" constraint on FD expressions.

Further infos:
  • defined as non-associative infix operator with precedence 4
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

(>=#) :: FDExpr -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   

"Greater than or equal" constraint on FD expressions.

Further infos:
  • defined as non-associative infix operator with precedence 4
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

true :: FDConstr   

The always satisfied FD constraint.

Further infos:
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

(/\) :: FDConstr -> FDConstr -> FDConstr   

Conjunction of FD constraints.

Further infos:
  • defined as right-associative infix operator with precedence 3
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

andC :: [FDConstr] -> FDConstr   

Conjunction of a list of FD constraints.

allC :: (a -> FDConstr) -> [a] -> FDConstr   

Maps a constraint abstraction to a list of FD constraints and joins them.

allDifferent :: [FDExpr] -> FDConstr   

"All different" constraint on FD variables.

Example call:
(allDifferent xs)
Parameters:
  • xs : list of FD variables
Returns:
satisfied if the FD variables in the argument list xs have pairwise different values.
Further infos:
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

sum :: [FDExpr] -> FDRel -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   

Relates the sum of FD variables with some integer of FD variable.

Further infos:
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

scalarProduct :: [FDExpr] -> [FDExpr] -> FDRel -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   

(scalarProduct cs vs relop v) is satisfied if (sum (cs*vs) relop v) is satisfied. The first argument must be a list of integers. The other arguments are as in sum.

Further infos:
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

count :: FDExpr -> [FDExpr] -> FDRel -> FDExpr -> FDConstr   

(count v vs relop c) is satisfied if (n relop c), where n is the number of elements in the list of FD variables vs that are equal to v, is satisfied. The first argument must be an integer. The other arguments are as in sum.

Further infos:
  • solution complete, i.e., able to compute all solutions

solveFD :: [Option] -> [FDExpr] -> FDConstr -> [Int]   

Computes (non-deterministically) a solution for the FD variables (second argument) w.r.t. constraint (third argument), where the values in the solution correspond to the list of FD variables. The first argument contains options to control the labeling/instantiation of FD variables.

solveFDAll :: [Option] -> [FDExpr] -> FDConstr -> [[Int]]   

Computes all solutions for the FD variables (second argument) w.r.t. constraint (third argument), where the values in each solution correspond to the list of FD variables. The first argument contains options to control the labeling/instantiation of FD variables.

solveFDOne :: [Option] -> [FDExpr] -> FDConstr -> [Int]   

Computes a single solution for the FD variables (second argument) w.r.t. constraint (third argument), where the values in the solution correspond to the list of FD variables. The first argument contains options to control the labeling/instantiation of FD variables.