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From: Julio Mariño <jmarino_at_fi.upm.es>

Date: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 17:24:27 +0200

[Sorry for the **ultra** late response. I began writing a reply, went busy

with urgent things... Finally I met Michael at Canterbury some days ago and

realized this was pending.]

Michael is right. I have mixed two different -- but related -- events from

my deep memory.

The first one is the discovery of the pruning effect of laziness on the

naive sort algorithm when "adapted" to the Babel language, which was used

to outperform Prolog. I say "adapted" because in order to achieve the lazy

interleaving of generator and test I needed to code 'permut', 'insert',

etc. as nondeterministic functions which were not legal Babel, but which

happened to work just fine -- the compiler did not reject them and they

returned all the answers. The standard encoding of relations in Babel by

translating Horn clauses into boolean functions did not behave lazily

(basically, it was as inefficient as the Prolog version). So, the example

was a hack that I showed in the demos but that did not actually appear in

the papers.

Of course, as pointed out before, this is still exponential. For example,

if permutations of a list of n elements are generated by randomly picking

one element from it and then appending a permutation of the remaininng

elements (which leads to a pseudo selection sort) it is clear that the

search space contains all the subsequences of the sorted list, i.e. 2^n

paths, and all but one lead to failure. If permutation is implemented by

randomly inserting the head element in a permutation of the tail, then it

can take a long time until the elements "reach the surface" so that they

can be consumed by the test predicate, as in:

isSorted (insert 1 (insert 2 (insert 3 (insert 4 (insert 5 [7,0])))))

which would reduce to False almost immediately if the deduction engine

could apply the lemma mentioned by Sebastian. The method that Sebastian

proposes cleverly solves the problem by "promoting" [7,0] to the first

positions of the 'insertions' sequence [[0], [7,0], ...] so that it can be

discarded by (all isSorted).

The second one is that by transforming the code using folds and unfolds,

efficient algorithms can actually be produced.

I am attaching some examples of this. The examples have been developed in

my own Sloth system, but can be adapted, if necessary to other FLP systems.

File

NaiveSort.curry

contains a naivesort algorithm in which permutation generation is based on

nondeterministic insertion. The transformed code thus implements insertion

sort.

File

NaiveSort2.curry

contains a naivesort algorithm in which permutation generation is based on

nondeterministically picking an element. The transformed code thus

implements selection sort. Both examples require the lemma used by

Sebastian in order to proceed.

Finally, file

NaiveSort7.curry

contains a polynomical naive sort in which, like in Sebastian's solution,

an intermediate type is used.

Best regards.

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Received on Wed Sep 24 2014 - 17:30:10 CEST

Date: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 17:24:27 +0200

[Sorry for the **ultra** late response. I began writing a reply, went busy

with urgent things... Finally I met Michael at Canterbury some days ago and

realized this was pending.]

Michael is right. I have mixed two different -- but related -- events from

my deep memory.

The first one is the discovery of the pruning effect of laziness on the

naive sort algorithm when "adapted" to the Babel language, which was used

to outperform Prolog. I say "adapted" because in order to achieve the lazy

interleaving of generator and test I needed to code 'permut', 'insert',

etc. as nondeterministic functions which were not legal Babel, but which

happened to work just fine -- the compiler did not reject them and they

returned all the answers. The standard encoding of relations in Babel by

translating Horn clauses into boolean functions did not behave lazily

(basically, it was as inefficient as the Prolog version). So, the example

was a hack that I showed in the demos but that did not actually appear in

the papers.

Of course, as pointed out before, this is still exponential. For example,

if permutations of a list of n elements are generated by randomly picking

one element from it and then appending a permutation of the remaininng

elements (which leads to a pseudo selection sort) it is clear that the

search space contains all the subsequences of the sorted list, i.e. 2^n

paths, and all but one lead to failure. If permutation is implemented by

randomly inserting the head element in a permutation of the tail, then it

can take a long time until the elements "reach the surface" so that they

can be consumed by the test predicate, as in:

isSorted (insert 1 (insert 2 (insert 3 (insert 4 (insert 5 [7,0])))))

which would reduce to False almost immediately if the deduction engine

could apply the lemma mentioned by Sebastian. The method that Sebastian

proposes cleverly solves the problem by "promoting" [7,0] to the first

positions of the 'insertions' sequence [[0], [7,0], ...] so that it can be

discarded by (all isSorted).

The second one is that by transforming the code using folds and unfolds,

efficient algorithms can actually be produced.

I am attaching some examples of this. The examples have been developed in

my own Sloth system, but can be adapted, if necessary to other FLP systems.

File

NaiveSort.curry

contains a naivesort algorithm in which permutation generation is based on

nondeterministic insertion. The transformed code thus implements insertion

sort.

File

NaiveSort2.curry

contains a naivesort algorithm in which permutation generation is based on

nondeterministically picking an element. The transformed code thus

implements selection sort. Both examples require the lemma used by

Sebastian in order to proceed.

Finally, file

NaiveSort7.curry

contains a polynomical naive sort in which, like in Sebastian's solution,

an intermediate type is used.

Best regards.

-- Julio MariÃ±o Babel research group Universidad Politecnica de Madrid

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- application/octet-stream attachment: NaiveSort.curry

- application/octet-stream attachment: NaiveSort2.curry

- application/octet-stream attachment: NaiveSort7.curry

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